Java Basics: Java Syntax, Java Class And Core Java Concepts

One of the most widely used programming languages worldwide is Java. Java has surpassed several milestones and established itself as a techie’s primary programming language. From rising to prominence as the most commonly used open-source programming language, it has become a crucial language for software development. Due to its popularity among developers, job opportunities have increased tremendously. According to the job portal, the java developer has more than 6000+ job openings and is expected to increase by 3% this year. 

To master a language, you must first understand its fundamental language patterns, semantic conventions, constructions, mathematical operations, and repetitive programming components. You must also be familiar with the various data structures, object-oriented programming techniques, and Java data types. Once you feel that you have mastered all these traits, you can call yourself an expert in the Java language. So, if you want to learn more about Java, you can join Java Training in Chennai, which will help you understand the Syntax of Java programs, methods, objects, constructors, strings and many more. 

In this blog, we shall discuss:

  • Java basic syntax 
  • Syntax of Java program  
  • The basic structure of the Java program

Java Syntax

Every programming language has specific guidelines that programmers must adhere to when creating programmes. 

The appropriate language compilers validate and check your program’s syntax. Java also offers a plethora of constructs and elements that help programmers create high-quality programmes efficiently.

Let’s discuss the additional constructs and components a Java programme will include.

Java Conventions

A Java programmer must adhere to the norms listed below when writing Java code.

(i) Class names: Every class name in Java must begin with an uppercase letter. For instance, a class salary will be referred to as “Salary” by the norm.

Each letter in the first word of your class name is capitalized if it consists of more than one word.

For example, MyHelloWorld.

(ii) Method name: Each method name must begin with a lowercase letter in Java. The first letter of each inner word is capitalized if the method name consists of more than one word.

Example: display (), myMethod () => these are valid method names in Java.

(iii) Program file name: The Java programme should have the same name as the public class, with the “.java” extension.

For instance, if the public class is called “MyFirsCourse,” you would save this code in the “” file. A Java source code might not have any public classes, so keep that in mind. In that situation, the source file may include your name.

(iv) Case sensitive: The Java programming language considers the case. This indicates that the parameters “Hi” and “hi” are distinct.

(v) Main method: In all Java programmes, the method “main” is a requirement because it serves as the program’s first start of execution.

Java Identifiers

The names of various programme elements, such as methods, classes, variables, and objects, are known as identifiers.

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A Java programmer must adhere to the following identifier rules:

  • An identifier must begin with letters (A-Z/a-z) or an underscore symbol (_) or currency character ($).
  • The identifier should not have the identical name as a Java reserved Keyword.
  • An identifier may consist of any number of characters beyond the first character.
  • Identifiers in Java are case-sensitive, just like in other languages syntax.

The following identifiers are acceptable according to the rules mentioned above.

myVar, _salary, $sum.

The following identifiers are not valid.

123var, *mult, int.

Java Modifiers

The accessibility of variables, methods, etc., is altered using modifiers.

In Java, there are two categories of modifiers

  • Access modifiers: Access modifier has classified into four types, namely default, private, public and protected. These modifiers are used to determine accessibility for members, classes, packages and classes. 
  • Non-access modifiers:  final, abstract, and strictfp are the non-access modifiers supported by Java. These modifiers are used to determine polymorphism style, inheritance, etc.  

Data Types

Any variable that stores data must specify the type of value it will store, whether it will store a character, string, or numeric value. This is referred to as the variable’s data type.

To better understand java data types, look at the diagram below. 

Data Types


These three categories of variables are supported by Java:

  • Class or static variables: Without an object, one can access this kind of variable.
  • Non-static or instance variables: These variables can be accessed as member variables with the aid of a class object.
  • Local variables: Local variables disappear outside a specific code section and are only accessible within that block.

The list of these “Keywords” is provided in the table below.

abstract double int super
assert else interface switch
boolean enum long synchronized
break extends native this
byte final new throw
case finally package throws
catch float private transient
char for protected try
class goto public void
const if return volatile
continue implements short while
default import static
do instance of strictfp


Statements that are disregarded by the compiler is called comments. You can add comments to your code to make it easier to read and comprehend.

Java supports three types of comments:

  • Single line comments indicated by ‘//’
  • Multi-line comments are denoted by ‘/*… */’
  • Documentation comments represented by ‘/** ******/


Operators are symbols that execute mathematical and logical operations on variables or identifiers. Operands are the names given to these variables or identifiers.

The image below illustrates the various operators that Java supports:


Decision Making

Decision Making is also called control statements. Control statements modify or maintain the program implementation based on a particular requirement. If the condition is proper, a block of code that follows this condition will perform. If the condition is improper, another block will be executed.Java has the following control/decision-making statements.

Decision Making


Looping is a feature of computer languages that allows a code block to be run repeatedly. The looping process often begins with a test, and the code block is run repeatedly or iterates until a condition is satisfied. 

You can use the following loop constructions in Java


Java Arrays

Arrays can be used to store data elements of the same type. Similar to other programming languages like C/C++ programming languages, Java also has arrays.

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Java supports

  • Single-dimensional arrays: Using an array name, the sequence of elements of the same type can be accessed. 
  • Multi-dimensional array: In the matrix form, the elements are arranged in columns and rows. 

Java Class & OOPS

A class representing any real-world object is called Java Class & OOPS., for example, an automobile. In Java, a class comprises data variables and the methods or functions that interface with them.

Data variables, member variables, and methods represent the functionality of objects, which are class instances. This suggests that at any time, an object defines the state of the object represented by a class.

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Java Interfaces

In Java, an interface is a set of fields and method signatures. Execution of methods does not exist for an interface. A class can inherit from an interface and then implement its methods.

Java Packages

Classes and interfaces that have the same functionality or dependencies constitute to form a package. The package makes modular Java programming easier.

Now, you would have understood the basic java syntax, the syntax of the java program and the basic structure of the java program. So, to learn more about Java, you can join Java Training in Bangalore and learn the basic structure of the java program, data types,

Operators, variables and many more.

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